“Insects ate on the flesh and wounds” of Jesus Christ prior to his death even as he suffered from congestive heart failure.
Forensic expert Dr. Erwin Erfe said his studies using forensic science has proved Jesus Christ’s miracles, including his “superhuman” endurance to scourges and wounds inflicted on His Divine nature.
Erfe, of the University of the Philippines, said his notes on “Forensic and Legal Aspects of the Passion and Death of Christ” proved the veracity of the controversial “Holy Shroud of Turin” where Jesus Christ’s image is permanently and photographically imprinted.
Erfe said Jesus Christ died of mechanical asphyxia secondary to crucifixion. The stages of asphyxia suffered by Jesus include struggle or forceful breathing,which was the first stage, and the second one, unconsciousness.
The third stage was convulsions and the fourth was weak pulse and then death which happened after His seven last Words.
The stages of Jesus’ death is proof that he was fully man then like we are today, yet fully God at the same time.
The “Shroud of Turin” is believed to be a long linen cloth which had been brought by Joseph of Arimathea in which Christ’s body was wrapped after His death on the Cross. The “Shroud” which carries Jesus’ full body image has been preserved for centuries. Efforts were made to burn and destroy the cloth but all were futile.
Reports said to protect “The Shroud” from exposure to ultra violet rays, it is only shown to the public every 100 years since Christ’s death, estimated around 3 p.m. on April 7, 30 A.D. This means the public could view it again in 2025.
Erfe said the cloth is remarkable since it carries the imprinted image of the Jesus’ human body showing front and back views.
Erfe noted that Christ’s image on the cloth is like the negative of a film, adding the Jesus’ height was estimated to be 71 inches and His weight estimated at 175 pounds.
Erfe’s researches and interpretative studies culled from various sources notably the Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ authored by Atty. Robert Bucklin, of Las Vegas, Nevada, revealed other interesting highlights on Christ’s Passion and Death on the Cross including His resurrection and reincarnation.
Erfe,who is a graduate of Bachelor of Science in Psychology, Forensic Anthropology, Physical Anthropology and Human Osteology of the University of the Philippines, is also a forensic consultant of the Public Attorney’s Office (PAO) headed by Chief Public Attorney Persida Rueda-Acosta.
Erfe said Christ died human, and reincarnated as God.
Erfe said Jesus was actually very human but the scourges He suffered in the hands of His tormentors showed He had “superhuman” resistance.
The miracle was Christ’s resurrection and the evidence He left on the “Shroud of Turin” proved the extreme intensity of the scourges.
Erfe said the marks on “The Shroud” disputed the common belief that Jesus was lashed with only 39 or 40 times. Under the Jewish law, the scourging is limited to 40 blows but as a habit, the limit was practically set at 39.
The forensic expert said the scourging, under the Roman law, to Jesus Christ was unlimited.
Those who have counted the scourge marks on the “The Shroud” have variously estimated them to be as many as 100, Erfe said.
Because of the heaviness of the cross and his continued bleeding ,Jesus fell to his knees several (three times) times. Modern medicine explains this as lack of oxygen due to diminishing amount of blood in his body causing weakness of muscles. If Jesus was not replaced by Simon of Cyrene in carrying the cross, he could have died before reaching Golgotha.
Forensic studies showed that Jesus Christ suffered from congestive heart failure, a condition where the heart is swamped with blood resulting from pleural effusion or the accumulation of water into the lungs.
Erfe said this was evidenced by a Roman soldier striking Him with a lance on the right side of the chest, which triggered the flowing out of the blood and water out of the wound. The lance pierced the right lung which contains the accumulated water and the right side or right ventricle of Christ’s heart.
Forensic examination revealed that Jesus carried the crossbar and not a cross on the upper part of his back . But He died on the cross where He was nailed later.
Experts estimated the weight of the crossbar around 80 pounds. He was nailed to the cross by driving nails through His wrists with one nail per wrist separating the wrist bones without fracturing them. Only one nail was used to nail His feet to the cross, with the left foot over the right foot.
Erfe said this position prolonged Jesus’ agony, explaining a victim supported only by the wrists was unable to survive for more than a very short time. By having some kind of foot support, Jesus was able to alternate his position, resulting in the prologing of His agony. Erfe said by breaking the legs of the crucified person, the foot support is removed and death occurs more rapidly. He added that based from studies of Jesus’ head wounds, the crown of thorns used is most likely shaped like a cap. The crown of thorns had branches and thorns over the top of the cap. The thorns were of the Zicyphus spina species and estimated at one inch in length. Passing through the skin and tissues in the scalp, the thorns lacerated vessels triggering considerable amount of bleeding because of the retraction of the torn vessels. On the face, corresponding to the right cheek, there is swelling of the malar region resulting in partial closure of the right eye. Presumably, the injury occurred during the time of the trial at the
courtyard of Caiaphas as recorded, that Christ was struck in the face by one of the soldiers. The bruise on the tip of the nose of Jesus could have occurred during one of the falls while carrying the crossbar, Erfe noted.
In all, Christ’s body injuries comprised of scourge marks, nail imprints on the wrists, nail marks in the feet, wounds in the heart and chest. Scourge marks appeared more distinct over the back extending from the shoulders down to calves of the legs. On the front of the body, the marks also appear on the chest and legs, but there is no evidence of marks of the scourge on the arms and forearms. This proves that the arms were elevated over the head at the time of scourging, Erfe explained.
Erfe said the scourge marks showed either there were two persons doing the lashing or one person changed his position left to right side.
The site of the Crucifixion was at Golgotha, a few distance from the wall of the City of Jerusalem. But the “Passion” really began at the Garden of Gethsemane where Jesus suffered the bloody sweat.
The phenomenon is known as hemohydrosis which is exceedingly rare and is explained to be hemorrhage into the sweat glands. The specific cause is not known but is related to increased vascular permeability based on alteration in vascular dynamics. It is highly probable that Jesus was at his highly emotional state which influenced His nervous system to an extent that capillaries became dilated and more permeable. The amount of blood lost is unknown but events showed that the amount was small since there were no account of saturation on the garments.
Forensics estimated that the distance Jesus travelled while carrying the crossbar was 600 yards or half a kilometer. He was suspended on the cross for three hours and He died around 3 p.m. He was arrested by soldiers around 3 a.m. on April 6, 30 AD after Judas’ betrayal.
Injustice Killed Jesus Christ
The arrest and two trials of Jesus Christ were illegal, Erfe said.
Erfe said under the Hebrew Criminal Code, any arrest or trial at night is forbidden. Jesus was arrested between midnight and 3 a.m.
The arrest was brought about through a traitor, Judas, who has hired by the Sanhedrin, the court that also tried Christ.
Judas had broken the commandment of the old law in acting as he did and this was sufficient ground to add another factor to the illegal act.
The time and date, too, of Jesus’ arrest was illegal since the court of Sanhendrin can only convene from Monday to Thursday during the day.
In Jesus’ trial, the court convened after sunset of April 6, 30 AD and lasted until sunset on Friday, April 7. The trial was conducted during the period of one day, in addition to being held on a day when the court could not legally convene.
The Sanhedrin was without authority to instigate charges and was only supposed to investigate charges brought before it. Yet in the case of Jesus, the court itself formulated the charges.
Caiaphas, the High Priest presented the charges and he was one of the judges (Matt.26:6).
One of the striking errors in the procedure was the charges against Jesus were changed during the trial. He was first accused of blasphemy, only to be changed when Jesus was presented before Roman Governor Pilate, since the first charge would not hold. The charge of blasphemy was no concern to the Romans so it was changed to treason and sedition; and Pilate was deceived that Jesus was undermining his authority before the Emperor.
Caiaphas also declared there was no further need for more witnesses (Mark 14:63). This was an illegal procedure since the law requires two witnesses whose stories should collaborate with each other.
Also, the Court of Sanhedrin did not convene in its usual place, but “illegally” convened at Caiaphas’ palace.
Erfe said Jesus had been prejudged by the court which tried Him.
His interpretative research on the “Passion of Christ” proved the accuracy of the accounts of the four disciples -- Mathew, Mark, Luke and John.